Our initiatives

Enabling ammonia as a marine fuel

Assuring the quality, quantity and emissions abatement of drop-in green fuels

Unlocking the carbon value chain

Scaling adoption of energy efficiency technologies

Enabling ammonia
as a marine fuel

The 2023 International Maritime Organization (IMO) GHG Strategy aims for shipping to reach net-zero emissions by 2050, with increasing adoption of low-/ zero-carbon fuels as a key lever.
 
Among the slate of promising future fuels are low-carbon variants of ammonia.
 
While ammonia’s important role in fertilizer production and industrial applications means that supply chains and infrastructure exist, deploying it as a marine fuel presents a distinct set of challenges. This new use case necessitates additional infrastructure, new supply chains, comprehensive safety standards, enhanced crew competency and operational guidelines for safe handling.

The increased frequency of handling that is expected when ammonia is used a marine fuel will require a higher level of attention to ensure safe operations due to its toxicity and corrosivity properties. Its use is further hampered by its lower volumetric energy density compared to conventional fossil fuels, requiring larger fuel storage capacity or more frequent refuelling. Regulations for handling ammonia as a marine fuel are still under development.

To help lower the adoption barriers of ammonia as a shipping fuel, we have already completed a safety study identifying the risks associated with piloting ammonia bunkering and planning ammonia transfer trials at anchorage in key ports. These trials aim to increase crew competence and stakeholder confidence, helping to ready the ecosystem for eventual ammonia bunkering.

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Assuring the quality,

quantity and
emissions abatement

of drop-in green fuels

Biofuels are widely recognised by the maritime sector as an alternative fuel that can be deployed today to reduce GHG emissions because they are “drop-in“-ready, requiring minimal changes to engines, onboard fuel delivery systems and bunkering infrastructure.
 
Biofuels, though attractive, will likely see limited adoption due to scarcity of certain feedstocks, which drives up costs. 
 
Blending biofuels with conventional fossil fuels offers a way to reduce emissions while keeping costs manageable.
 
However, there is currently no industry-wide assurance framework addressing concerns about the quantity, quality and GHG emissions abatement of biofuels on a well-to-wake basis. With IMO specifying guidelines on life cycle GHG intensity of marine fuels, the need for an end-to-end assurance framework becomes critical to safeguard their premium and value.
 
To increase user confidence and uptake of biofuels, we have established a framework to provide quality, quantity and abatement assurance for drop-in biofuels.

We are also assessing the suitability of crude algae oil (CAO), a third-generation biofuel, as a shipping fuel. CAO has the promising potential to also meet or exceed MEPC 80’s 65% GHG emissions reduction requirement for biofuels. And if proven viable, CAO can expand the range of existing biofuels today. 

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Unlocking the

carbon value chain

While shipowners are likely to meet their 2030 target by incorporating biofuels and LNG in their fuel mix and deploying a combination of technical and operational measures, meeting the 2040 and the net-zero 2050 targets will require significant uptake of zero-carbon fuels. 
 
With zero-carbon fuel availability uncertain and cost premium high, shipowners are increasingly looking to Onboard Carbon Capture and Storage (OCCS)* as a key interim solution. Our 2023 Global Maritime Decarbonisation Survey revealed that 60% of respondents across all segments and fleet sizes see OCCS as important to achieving net-zero emissions.
 
But the adoption of OCCS faces many hurdles including high CAPEX for shipboard-compatible systems within limited space, OPEX owing to additional fuel needed to operate the energy-intensive system and justification on the amount of CO2 captured. Further adding to these challenges, guidelines for safe offloading and utilising captured CO2 currently do not exist. 
 
To help close operational gaps, we have launched a pilot to demonstrate end-to-end OCCS at scale entailing a front-end engineering design (FEED) study of a OCCS system, along with a concurrent CO2 offloading study, working with various ports, to understand the challenges and opportunities of offloading captured CO2.
 
*Previously referred to as Shipboard Carbon Capture (SBCC) in our communications materials.

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Scaling adoption of

energy efficiency

technologies

Improving energy efficiency is a fail-safe approach for managing energy costs. For shipping, where green fuels face hefty premiums, limited availability and lower energy densities than conventional fossil fuels, using less fuels of any kind becomes increasingly important to achieve IMO targets.
 
The Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII), with its increasingly stringent yearly targets, also encourages immediate action through energy efficiency measures. 
 
Despite their proven benefits, implementation of energy efficient technologies (EETs) has been slow and patchy. 
 
Two key hurdles stand in the way. First, the variable operating conditions of ships lead to data variability and uncertainty, making it difficult to assess the true impact of energy efficient technologies. 
 
Second, shipowners bear the upfront costs of implementing these measures, while the fuel savings and economic benefits flow to charterers, creating a split incentive problem that discourages widespread adoption.
 
We are exploring through a series of pilots the potential effectiveness of a Pay-As-You-Save (PAYS) scheme, a financing model proven to be effective in other sectors. 
 
PAYS leverages transparent data sharing, allowing stakeholders to verify fuel savings and attribute them to specific technologies. This link between performance and financing unlocks further investments, spurring adoption of EETs.

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GCMD initiatives roadmap

A look ahead at our
initiatives

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Enabling ammonia as a marine fuel

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Assuring the quality, quantity and emissions abatement of drop-in green fuels

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Unlocking the carbon value chain

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Scaling adoption of energy efficiency technologies

Enabling ammonia as a marine fuel2022202320242025
Phase 1: Ammonia bunkering pilot safety studyTo define safety and operational envelopes for ammonia bunkering pilot in Singapore
Status: Completed (Start Jan 2022 • End Feb 2023)Explore project
Phase 2A: Detailed operational risk assessment for ship-to-ship cargo transfer of ammonia in the port waters of SingaporeTo ascertain operational requirements and develop emergency response plans for STS transfer of ammonia at Singapore’s Raffles Reserved Anchorage
Status: In progress (Start Oct 2023 • End Sep 2024)Explore project
Phase 2B: Plan and execute STS ammonia transfer pilotTo demonstrate the safe STS transfer of ammonia within port limits in Singapore
Status: Planning (Start Oct 2024 • End Jun 2025)
Enable a network of ports for ammonia bunkeringTo engage and assess the feasibility of ammonia bunkering in multiple ports
Status: In progress (Start Oct 2023 • End TBC)
Drop-in green fuels2022202320242025
Biofuels end-to-end supply chain pilotsTo establish an assurance framework (covering quantity, quality, GHG abatement and traceability) for biofuel supply through Asia, Europe and United States
Status: In progress (Start Aug 2022 • End Sep 2024)Explore project
Crude algae oil as a drop-in green marine fuelTo evaluate the feasibility of crude algae oil as a biofuel candidate for the marine sector
Status: In progress (Start Aug 2022 • End Sep 2024)Explore project
Project LOTUS:
Long-term impact of continuous use of biofuels on vessel operations
To develop a master guide for the long-term use of biofuels onboard vesselsStatus: In progress (Start May 2024 • End Dec 2024)Explore project
E/ bio-methanol quality, quantity and abatement assurance (QQAA)To articulate the QQAA framework for e/ bio-methanol use as a marine fuel
Status: Planning (Start Oct 2024 • End Oct 2025)
BioLNG quality, quantity and abatement assurance (QQAA)To articulate the QQAA framework for bio-LNG use as a marine fuel
Status: Planning (Start Jun 2025 • End Mar 2026)
Unlocking the carbon value chain2022202320242025
Project REMARCCABLE:
Realising maritime carbon capture to demonstrate the ability to lower emissions
To design an onboard carbon capture system for an MR tanker
Status: In progress (Start Sep 2022 • End Mar 2024)Explore project
Concept study to offload onboard captured CO2To explore conditions for storing and handling captured CO2 onboard ships, as well as its offloading onto reception facilities.  
Status: Completed (Start Apr 2023 • End Mar 2024)Explore project
Project COLOSSUS:
Carbon capture, offloading, onshore storage, utilisation and sequestration
To conduct a life cycle assessment (LCA) of GHG emissions for OCCS and its associated value chain
Status: In progress (Start Dec 2023 • End Jun 2024)Explore project
Scaling adoption of energy efficiency technologies2023202420252026
Project PAYS (Pay-As-You-Save) 1
Establish binding commercial, data and technical agreements governing a retrofit installation
Status: In progress (Start Feb 2024 • End Sep 2024)
Execute installation, data collection, validation and activation of contractsStatus: Planning (Start Oct 2024 • End Jul 2025)Explore project














Project PAYS (Pay-As-You-Save) 2Establish binding commercial, data and technical agreements governing retrofit installations for a fleet of vesselsStatus: Planning (Start Jul 2024 • End Apr 2025)
Execute installation, data collection, validation and activation of contractsStatus: Planning (Start May 2025 • End Mar 2026)














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